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Science and innovation: measurement standards, methodology, international comparisons. Volume 2

Science and innovation: measurement standards, methodology, international comparisons. Volume 2

Osipov G., Mindeli L. - M.: ISPR RAS, 2016. – 378 p.
ISBN 978-5-7556-0566-3 (volume 2)
ISBN 978-5-7556-0563-2

This two-volume book contains extensive papers dedicated to the measurement of science and technology. The authors consider methodological principles and international standards for measuring R&D and innovation, legal and normative basis for science statistics in Russia, the coverage of research activity in the system of national accounts, problems of metrics and methods selection for measuring R&D.
For experts in science statistics, scientometrics, and science studies, as well as government officials in charge of assessing science and technology and developing science policy.

   
Contents
Part 3.
PLACE OF SCIENCE IN THE SYSTEM OF NATIONAL ACCOUNTS AND ITS IMPACT ON ECONOMICS


Preface

Chapter 1. Conceptual basics of the SNA measuring research activities
1.1. Main approaches to present research services in the System of National Accounts (SNA) – 1993
1.2. Approaches to present research services in the System of National Accounts
(SNA) – 2008
1.3. Definitions of research activities and expenditures in Frascati Manual
1.4. Main differences in research activities data collection in SNA-1993, SNA-2008 and Frascati Manual

Chapter 2. Methodological aspects of defining research services resources and applications in accordance with the SNA-2008
2.1. Basics of methodology for defining the resources of research services
2.2. Methodology for defining research services resources
2.3. Methodology for defining research services aplications
2.4. Information sources for calculating research activity output

Chapter 3. Foreign experience of defining R&D impact on the GDP value, structure, and rate
3.1. Satellite accounts as a new instrument for measuring R&D impact on economics...
3.2. R&D satellite account of the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA): main notions and peculiarities of calculation
3.3. Results of BEA R&D accounting as investments and their impact on economics
3.4. Results of BEA R&D accounting as investments by individual industries
3.5. R&D as investments in regional BEA accounts
3.6. R&D as investments in international BEA accounts
3.7. Further research to improve R&D assessments and consequences for Russia

Part 4.
MEASUREMENT OF INNOVATION ACTIVITIES


Preface

Chapter 1. Standards for measuring innovation activities
1.1. Basics of measurement
1.2. Coverage
1.3. Main definitions of innovation activities and types of innovations
1.4. Considering type of innovation in data collection 89
1.5. Institutional classifications 90
1.6. Linkages in the innovation process

Chapter 2. Standards for measuring patent activity
2.1. Science and technology indicators based on patent data
2.2. Analysis of patent activity on the country level
2.3. Relative indicators of patent activity
2.4. Analysis of patent activity on the sectoral level
2.5. Analysis of patent activity of firms

Chapter 3. Standards for measuring the Technology Balance of Payment (TBP)
3.1. Main definitions
3.2. Transactions covered by the TBP
3.3. Systems of classification
3.4. Surveys and data collection methods
3.5. Currency conversion and deflation
3.6. Methodology for calculating the indicators of advantage and technological specialization

Chapter 4. Components of measuring innovation activities
4.1. Conditions of including R&D in innovation activities
4.2. Activities for product and process innovations
4.3. Activities for marketing and organizational innovations
4.4. Making difference between R&D and non-R&D innovation activities

Chapter 5. Factors fostering and hampering innovation activities
5.1. Objectives and effects of innovations
5.2. Impact of innovations on turnover
5.3. Impact of innovations on cost, employment, and productivity
5.4. Factors hampering innovation activities
5.5. Questions on the appropriability of innovations

Chapter 6. Collecting data on innovation activities
6.1. Categories of data collecting
6.2. Classification of types of expenditures on innovation activities
6.3. Classification of innovation activities by funding source
6.4. Subject approach and object approach

Chapter 7. Innovation survey procedures
7.1. Populations covered by innovation survey
7.1. Methods of innovation activities surveys
7.3. Estimation of results
7.4. Presentation of results
7.5. Frequency of data collection


Chapter 8. Contemporary state of national practice of building innovation statistics
8.1. Organization of statistical monitoring innovations in Russia
8.2. Peculiarities of methodological basics of innovation statistics in Russia

Part 5.
MEASURING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY ACTIVITIES; METRICS, MODELS, METHOD SELECTION


Preface

Chapter 1. Overview of metrics for measuring effectiveness of research and technology activities
1.1. Criteria for metric selection
1.2. Characteristics of main metrics
1.2.1. Input/investments
1.2.2. Output/production
1.2.3. Economic and financial metrics
1.2.4. Bibliometrics: publications and citations
1.2.5. Content analysis and mapping
7.26. Patent data
7.2.7. Peer review
1.3. Effectiveness of metrics
1.4. Application of metrics of research and technology activities
1.4.1. Measuring general effectiveness of an organization
1.4.2. Measuring the effectiveness of university science
1.4.3. Measuring the effectiveness of industrial R&D
1.4.4. Measuring the effectiveness of public organizations

Chapter 2. Models of measuring the R&D effectiveness and method selection
2.1. Measurement models
2.1.1. Input-Output-Outcomes models
2.1.2. Intellectual capital models
2.1.3. Technology Value Pyramid
2.1.4. Process Outcomes Model
2.2. Classification and selection of methods
2.2.1. Perspective of measurement
2.2.2. Objective of measurement
2.2.3. Level of measurement
2.2.4. Type of R&D
2.2.5. Phase of R&D process
2.2.6. Integral measurement system

Chapter 3. Measuring the social effectiveness of research
3.1. Assessing the social effectiveness of basic research
3.2. Assessing the social effectiveness of applied social research


CONCLUSION

APPENDICES
Appendix 1. Glossary of statistical terms used in SNA-2008
Appendix 2. List of indicators characterizing innovation activities

ACRONYMS

LITERATURE

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